Chartouni, C., & Nyarko, Y. (2018). Managed Labor Migration in Afghanistan: A Brief Review of the Academic Migration Literature. Washington, DC: World Bank.
This paper presents key findings on the international experience with migration, focusing on the implications for a developing nation that is a country of origin. The paper identifies several areas of impacts: (1) increases in wages of individual migrants; (2) remittances; (3) impacts on skills and skill formation – those leaving acquire skills to enhance ability to migrate, and those returning often do so with acquired skills and work experience.